Brain-derived neutrophil factor (BDNF) is a key protein necessary to maintain normal neuronal function and is associated with improved memory, learning, and cognitive function. Neuroinflammation, characterized by the activation of microglia and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain, can negatively affect cognitive function. Polyphenols found in green tea and turmeric, as well as omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, possess anti-inflammatory effects that can attenuate microglial activation and cytokine release, thereby promoting a neuroprotective environment [. Neuroinflammation can affect BDNF expression and signaling, hindering synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities. Dietary compounds such as curcumin in turmeric and flavonoids in blueberries positively regulate BDNF expression. Dietary supplements and nutraceuticals with anti-inflammatory properties, such as palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), have the potential to positively influence cognitive health by indirectly increasing BDNF. PEA is an endocannabinoid-like lipid mediator that occurs naturally in the body and is found in foods such as egg yolk. As PEA has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier. Greater availability of PEA increases the concentration of cannabinoids, which subsequently modulate stress factors, neuroinflammation, and cognition.

The results demonstrate that PEA supplementation was associated with better performance in one of the domains of cognitive abilities, specifically memory. CANTAB ® scores revealed a significant improvement in memory retrieval (PALFAMS) and a significant decrease in total error rate (PALTEA) during pattern retrieval from baseline to end in the PEA group, while no such changes were observed in the placebo group.

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/16/4/489 (2024).--

Long-term intake of ginseng could prolong life without risks to physical and mental health. Regular consumption of ginseng, especially over long periods, is associated with a lower risk of death from all causes, death from cardiovascular disease, and death from other diseases

Ginseng improves acute working memory performance or cognitive function in healthy individuals and in those with subjective memory impairment (SMI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or early Alzheimer's disease (AD). ) dementia who are taking AD medications. Ginseng contains several components ranging from the classic ginsenosides and polysaccharides to the more recently described gintonin. The most recent discovery is gintonin, a new glycolipoprotein. In vitro studies have shown that ginseng components such as gintonin and ginsenosides exhibit antioxidant effects. Consequently, these components inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals within neuronal mitochondria, thus promoting neuronal health.

Ginseng components such as ginsenosides and gintonin have also been shown to attenuate neuroinflammation. Oral administration of ginseng components inhibited amyloid plaque accumulation in the hippocampus and cortex. It also increases the concentration of acetylcholine in the brain by elevating the activity of choline acetyltransferase, which is responsible for the synthesis of acetylcholine, while reducing the activity of acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine. Furthermore, oral administration of ginseng components such as gintonin enhances the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226845324000344 (2024).-

The peels of many citrus cultivars contain ingredients with potential BDNF. -positive regulation capacity, which can be seeds of novel drugs for the treatment of depression, AD and PD. Furthermore, many citrus cultivars could be used as foods that upregulate BDNF.



Exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The improvement in cognitive performance is related to increased blood flow during cardiovascular exercise, which leads to the release of BDNF in the peripheral nervous system. The practice of moderate exercise produces high levels of BDNF, reports that aerobic exercise compared to low intensity exercise induces positive results in terms of BDNF Concentration.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1755296624000036 (2024).--

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Lion's mane (Hericium erinaceus) has been shown to be helpful in the proven renewal of neurons due to its precursor activity in the production of myelin (protective layer of nerve connections) and Nerve Growth Factor—NGF.

Lion's mane has a crucial role in neurogenesis. This mushroom contains hericenones (A, B, C, D and E), as well as erinacins, which help in the production of the hormone nerve growth factor (NGF).

Different tests have demonstrated the action of hericenones as stimulators of renewal at two levels:---

1) Neuronal regeneration (stimulating the production of NGF). This factor plays an important role in peripheral neuropathies and especially those related to diabetes.--

2) Regeneration of the protective myelin layer. This is a decisive factor in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases.--

3) Its adaptogenic action against stress, insomnia, memory recovery or the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's.---

In 1998, the Spanish researcher José Manuel García Verdugo (University of Valencia) in collaboration with the Mexican Arturo Álvarez-Buylla (University of California) demonstrated that the renewal of neurons is the work of neuronal stem cells with the characteristics of astrocytes. Published in the scientific journal Nature, he described the “cradle” of neuronal stem cells, located in the subventricular zone.

The discovery of neurogenesis has enabled new avenues of study for the treatment and prevention of various neurodegenerative diseases. In this sense, it has been shown that neurogenesis-promoting substances are capable of crossing the selective blood-brain barrier, thus coming into direct contact with astrocytes.

https://hifasdaterra.com/blog/melena-de-leon-el-milagro-para-la-recuperacion-de-la-memoria-y-la-neurogenesis/?gad_source=1&gclid=Cj0KCQjw6auyBhDzARIsALIo6v-7gZlMsA12qXLkofA8EeX00Wr24AyquvNv5VGFWzkJ FxRX8PONoAgaArDhEALw_wcB

Important nutrients in mushrooms include lentinan and beta-glucans. selenium, vitamin D, glutathione and ergothioneine (ET) which can mitigate oxidative stress. ET should be classified as a "longevity vitamin." ET promotes longevity and healthy aging.

ET is a vital nutrient for the human body, especially the brain. Low levels of ET are associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and other age-related diseases, including cancer. In humans, blood levels of ergothioneine decline after age 60, and lower ergothioneine levels are associated with more rapid cognitive decline.

1, ET benefits brain function both through its antioxidant activity and by promoting neurogenesis and neuronal maturation i.e. ET have been associated with the incidence of several disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), mild cognitive impairment, Crohn's disease, and prevalence of peripheral neuropathy.

2. The ability to scavenge free radicals, which can be proposed to arise from the oxidation of an easy electron from its disulfide group.

3. Chelating properties.

4. Activation of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) and Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and inhibition of superoxide generation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome c reductase.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584924001357 (2024).---

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11357-024-01111-5 (2024).--

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S000689932300464X (2024).---

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34978075/ (2022).----

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/ergothioneine (2013-2023).----

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9816654/ (2023).---

https://cir.nii.ac.jp/crid/1360580230626849280 (2022).--

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Lion's mane and oyster mushrooms are among the best sources of the diet-derived amino acid, L-ergothioneine (Figure 8 and Supplementary File S4). The variation of L-ergothioneine within some mushroom varieties in our study may be explained by differences in cultivation, handling or degradation rates. Understanding such variability will require extensive stability studies, which would be valuable to consumers but may be challenging due to limitations such as harvest and shipping time. It is also worth noting that similar differences in L-ergothioneine concentration have been reported for the seven fungus. For example, among eight analytical samples, L-ergothioneine concentrations ranged from 4 to 29 mg/100 g and from 7 to 46 mg/100 g in oyster and lion's mane mushrooms, respectively [

https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/12/16/2985 (2023)

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