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The evidence contemplated by Dr. Mercola reflects that thanks to exercise, as a properly planned and structured body movement, many health problems can be prevented and improved. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that stress is a key mediator in the pathophysiology of depression. Exercise is a readily available and effective therapeutic option as a first-line treatment in mild to moderate depression.

Open your mind when you think about exercise. Look for ways to add small amounts of physical activity into your day. For example, take the stairs instead of taking the elevator. Park a little further from your work, for a short walk. Or, if you live close to your work, consider cycling to work. Exercising releases endorphins, removing worries from your mind. Gain confidence to achieve goals and have social interaction. Longitudinal studies have established that those who exercise with others have a lower risk of developing cognitive impairment, depression, and functional disability than those who exercise alone. Regarding the scenario in which all participants exercised with others ≥ 2 times per week, the risk of developing cognitive impairment decreased by 29.2%. This impact was greater than the scenario in which the participants exercised alone, which was 15.1%. According to a recent report by the Spanish Society of Neurology (SEN), between 35% and 50% of those who suffer from Alzheimer's must be considered. , they also have depression. This report also maintains that depression is, after apathy, the second most common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer's disease.

The immune system is now considered an important component in the pathogenesis of depression and a target of antidepressant strategies. Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and the relative abundance of specific taxa have been associated with depressive disorders.

Furthermore, it has been proposed that the microbiota-gut-brain axis may use inflammatory mechanisms to mediate the progression of depressive behavior.

Research has shown that acute bouts of exercise transiently modulate circulating levels of kynurenine and norepinephrine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and a variety of immunoinflammatory mechanisms in clinical cohorts with depression. In this systematic review with meta-analysis, we identified that exercise increases circulating levels of and BDNF in adults with depressive disorder. The pathogenesis of depression involves the interaction of complex biological components, such as the immune system and the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Complementary lifestyle-oriented approaches to depression, including physical exercise and special diets, are promising therapeutic options when combined with traditional antidepressants. The effect of physical exercise on the bidirectional relationship between the intestine and the CNS is characterized by its effect on the diversity and abundance of the intestinal microbiota through various mechanisms involving BDNF signaling pathways. Therapeutic options related to the gut microbiota, including diet and exercise, exert a strong impact on the bidirectional relationships of the gut brain, resulting in improvement of comorbid depression. Furthermore, targeting the CREB/BDNF signaling pathway in gut microbiota dysfunction-induced depression represents a therapeutic strategy.

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https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-022-01819-w (2023).--

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165032723001040 (2023).--

https://ascpt.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/cpt.2581 (2023).-

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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361923024000157 (2024).--

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