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We must consider the importance of intestinal health in depression, which of course is related to the level of toximia and the state of micronutrients. Research is showing that the better intestinal health, the better mental health and vice versa. The relationship that bacterial strains known as psychobiotics have with the central nervous system and with the blood-brain barrier, the guardian of our brain, is key in addressing many pathologies in the mental sphere, in addition to other possible benefits that they can provide to others. levels.

The modulation, development and renewal of ENS neurons are controlled by the intestinal microbiota. Although the vagus nerve (VN) is in contact with all layers of the intestinal wall, the fibers cross the intestinal wall and are therefore not in direct contact with the intestinal microbiota through 100 to 500 million neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the submucosa and the myenteric plexus of the intestinal wall.

In this intestinal health we can consider psychobiotics are involved in:

-----1.- Produce neurochemicals, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which, being antagonistic, modulate our mood when we have an adequate relationship, as reported by Dr. Mercola. GABA signaling is often altered in those suffering from anxiety 2..

-----2.- It has been previously shown that all of these factors are negatively affected by stress. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) counteract the long-lasting effects of chronic psychosocial stress.

-----3.- 'Psychobiotics' can influence our mental state through their impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). When dysfunction in the HPA axis occurs, our daily rhythmic production of cortisol and other stress hormones is disrupted, which can result in feelings of stress, altered mood, and disrupted sleep. Dysbiosis can lead to a "leaky" intestinal barrier, allowing gut contents to pass through the porous lining of the intestine, triggering an immune response. This immune response involves the production of pro-inflammatory messengers that can activate the HPA axis.

------4.- Another mechanism of action against stress and depression is related to the impact that probiotics can have on inflammation. Beneficial probiotic bacteria in a healthy gut microbiome produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) when they break down prebiotic fibers. These SCFAs may help maintain the integrity of the intestinal lining, helping to limit inflammation caused by increased intestinal permeability. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the appearance of symptoms of psychopathological diseases, anxiety and stress since it is capable of altering the metabolism of biogenic monoamines involved in their pathogenesis.---

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